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23 May 2011

 

Complex research of high-speed intercity String Transport System

String Technologies Unitsky Pty Ltd presents the complex research of high-speed intercity String Transport System including:

  • technical analysis;
  • optimal model range;
  • criteria and parameters of the system.

The basis for the complex research of high-speed intercity String Transport System is Statement of Work No.001, dated and effective 23rd of February 2011 submitted in connection with the Master Services Agreement by and between String Technologies Unitsky Pty Ltd (ACN 144 498 251) and Silk Rail Systems Limited (ACN 144 498 411), dated 17th of December 2010.

Development purpose: Preliminary research of technical and economic parameters; development of the main technical solutions for the concept of a new high speed ground-level SRS transport system, based on UST technology; identification of the optimal criteria and parameters of the system.

The Concept of High Speed SRS Transport System

High speed SRS transport system is "the second level" transport system, which track structure is raised above the terrain and is mounted to the supports. It is a kind of suspended and cable-stayed bridges with a pre-stressed cable (string) wired to rigidity beam. It also serves as a railway for a rolling stock. Due to this peculiarity SRS railway has no expansion joints, which is the main problem of conventional railways. Depending on span construction SRS track structure may be designed in two forms. The first one is when the track structure is designed in the form of string-rail. The second one is when the track structure is designed in the form of string-truss.

String-rail track structure

String-rail track structure

String-truss track structure

String-truss track structure

The calculations of dynamic interaction of high speed rolling stock with string-truss track structure prove that it is much simpler to achieve a high ride of a train at a high speed when driving along string-truss track structure. However, this cheaper and more rigid span structure is less aesthetic than string-rail structure.

Therefore, string-rail track structure is more preferable when the visual impact on the surrounding landscape should be reduced (for example, in the cities or when there is no need in high speeds). Material consumption of a track structure will be changed insignificantly, but the cost will be reduced significantly, due to lower string tension per each rail (required string tension in a string-rail is proportional to an estimated speed of a rolling stock).

Rolling stock

Rolling stock is a unibus. The unibuses may be divided into five categories depending on their passenger capacity. Each unibus category consists of several versions depending on its power supply:

  • Version 1 - a unibus equipped with independent power supply (internal combustion engine);
  • Version 2 - a unibus equipped with external power supply (electric contact wire).

The arrangement of both versions is the same. Front and middle parts of the body form a passengers compartment. Hind section is equipped with power unit.

Layout diagram of unibuses (Version1)

Layout diagram of unibuses (Version1)

The most efficient technical solutions such as, for example, the use of light metal alloys and high-strength plastic in body design, were implemented in the design of the whole high speed unibus:

  • rolling of cylindrical metal wheels along flat metal rail (linear contact). The experience in operating of overhead rail roads shows that for linear contact wheels rolling resistance is approximately 1.5 lower than for the point contact (taking into account the same wheel diameter and the same wheel load). Linear contact provides lower contact stresses, which reduce the noise of wheels rolling, especially at high speeds. Wheels and rail top wear is also reduced and their service life is prolonged;
  • high aerodynamic properties of body shape. The design of aerodynamic body is based on the principles described in the inventions of Anatoly Yunitskiy (created in the period of 1994-2005) "High-speed Transport Module", Eurasian Patents No. 003490, 003535, 003534 and 003533, "High-speed Transport Module of Unitsky Transport System", Patents of Russian Federation No. 2211781, 2201369, 2201368, 2203195, 2217339 and 2203194.

Track structure

String-rail track structure consists of two string rails, which form a gauge. Track structure may also consist of two string-trusses. String-rails (string-trusses) are mounted to anchor supports. String-rails (string-trusses) lay on intermediate supports, which are installed between anchor supports.

String-rail is uncut along the whole length steel beam of boxlike section, covered with rail top, reinforced with pre-stressed reinforced strings (stretched to 50-75% of tensile strength). The cables in a string are blocked with a special concrete, which increases their durability and corrosion resistance.

String-rail section

String-rail section

String-truss is the part of a track structure which consists of two string-rails and two beams. They form upper rail track and lower power frame, interconnected with bridges and braces. String-beams of lower frame do not have rail top as compared to the upper rail track.

String-truss

String-truss

Infrastructure

SRS transport system infrastructure consists of:

  • passenger stations and station buildings;
  • depot and service parks;
  • turnout switches;
  • control system, power supply system and communication system.
Platform of SRS passenger station

Platform of SRS passenger station

Transfer station

Transfer station

General arrangement of high speed unibus major technical solutions

Unibus is a four-wheel vehicle with streamlined aerodynamic body. Unibus is equipped with steel wheels. Its front and middle sections form a passenger compartment. Its power unit is located in the rear section. Power unit, power transmission and other units and devices that ensure unibus functioning are located in drive compartment.

General arrangement of unibus drive compartment for Version 1

General arrangement of unibus drive compartment for Version 1

Passenger compartment of a high-speed unibus

Passenger compartment of a high-speed unibus

Operator's working place in a head unibus

Operator's working place in a head unibus

Four drive wheels serve as a guide anti-derailment device of a unibus (one device per each suspension block and bearing wheel). Guide wheels are in contact with lateral surface of string rail top. Guide wheels are pressed to a string-rail by initial effort. In the event of lateral exciting force unibus will be transversally displaced, until increasing resistance force to the lateral movement of guide wheels is equal to exciting transverse force. At the same time the contact of guide wheels, located on the other side of a unibus, with lateral runways of rail top is not lost. Upon termination of lateral exciting force guide wheels of a unibus take their original position, symmetric with respect to the left and right string-rails.

Guide anti-derailment device of a unibus

Guide anti-derailment device of a unibus

All-weather operation and other advantages of high speed SRS intercity transport system

High speed intercity SRS is a two-track transport system "of the second level". It is more compact and less material-intensive as compared to the existing transport systems "of the second level", such as monorail, train on magnetic suspension, railroad trestles. It results in decrease of capital expenses for its construction. Besides, the system has the following advantages:

  • it is more resistant (as compared to railroads) to floodings, to earthquakes and other natural disasters;
  • due to the absence of the embankment and rail-sleeper, as compared to the conventional railroad, high speed intercity SRS does not destroy flora and fauna;
  • the system is highly resistant to lateral wind. Due to their aerodynamic body design and other technical solutions used in their design, SRS unibuses are able to operate in a normal mode on straight sections of a track structure in the hurricanes of the first, the second and the third category according to Saffir-Simpson scale.
High speed intercity SRS is resistant to flooding

High speed intercity SRS is resistant to flooding

High speed intercity SRS does not destroy flora and fauna

High speed intercity SRS does not destroy flora and fauna

Conclusions and recommendations

A number of conclusions and recommendations might be drawn based on the results of "SRS High Speed Intercity String Transport System" Technical Analysis, aimed at determining the relevance and feasibility of new transport system implementation.

Conclusions:

  1. The development of an innovative SRS transport system, which will solve a complex problem of passenger traffic (passenger traffic flow up to 100,000 pass/day and more) within the logistics chain "megacity - megacity" is of great importance.
  2. Capital expenses for the construction of high speed SRS in conditions of level terrain will amount to: Capital expenses for the construction of high speed SRS in conditions of level terrain
  3. The lowest haulage cost is observed for:
    • SRM I (2 passengers) at a speed of 144 km/h,
    • SRM II (6 passengers) at a speed of 180 km/h,
    • SRM III (14 passengers) at a speed of 209 km/h,
    • SRM IV (22 passengers) at a speed of 209 km/h,
    • SRM V (30 passengers) at a speed of 212 km/h.
    When unibus speed exceeds 360 km/h, there is a sharp increase in haulage cost.
  4. Cost per passenger transportation at a distance of 350 km and at a speed of 100 m/sec (360 km/h) depending on passenger traffic flow and unibus passenger capacity is: Cost per passenger transportation at a distance of 350 km and at a speed of 100 m/sec (360 km/h) depending on passenger traffic flow and unibus passenger capacity
  5. When passenger traffic flow varies from 1 to 40 thous. pass/day (haulage distance of 350 km at a speed of 100 m/sec (360 km/h) cost per haulage is decreased by 4.5 times for SRM V unibus (30 passengers) and by 3.5 times for SRM I unibus (2 passengers).
  6. When passenger traffic flow varies from 40 to 100 thous. pass/day cost per haulage is decreased by 10% for all categories of unibuses.
  7. The analysis of haulage cost proved that energy costs (80% for SRM I) and amortization charges (42% for SRM V) have the most significant effect on cost per haulage (haulage distance of 350 km at a speed of 100 m/sec (360 km/h).
  8. When payback period is 10 years (haulage distance of 350 km at a speed of 100 m/sec (360 km/h), depending on passenger traffic flow and unibus passenger capacity, the fare will be: Depending on passenger traffic flow and unibus passenger capacity
  9. CO2 and toxic components emissions by SRS transport system (passenger traffic flow is 40,000 pass/day, haulage distance of 350 km) as compared to high speed trains and aircrafts are 2 and toxic components emissions by SRS transport system as compared to high speed trains and aircrafts All unibuses of Version 2 and SRM V unibus of Version 1 are the most environmentally friendly vehicles.
  10. As compared to road transport and railways SRS transport system is more resistant to flooding and other natural disasters (earthquakes, snowfalls, etc.).
  11. Due to the absence of the embankment and rail-sleeper, as compared to the conventional railroad, high speed intercity SRS does not destroy flora and fauna.
  12. SRS transport system operates in a normal mode on straight sections of a track structure in the hurricanes of the first, the second and the third category according to Saffir-Simpson scale (wind speed up to 209 km/h).

Recommendations:

  • Taking into account the results of Technical Analysis it is recommended to focus on operational velocity, not exceeding 100 m/sec (360 km/h).
  • The analysis of haulage cost proved that energy costs (80% for SRM I) have the most significant effect on cost per haulage (haulage distance of 350 km at a speed of 100 m/sec (360 km/h). Therefore, while designing unibuses with small passenger capacity much attention should be paid to midsection minimization, optimization of body shape (in order to achieve minimum aerodynamic drag Cx). It is necessary to comply with modern requirements of safety, ergonomics and travelling comfort.
  • Taking into account the results of Technical Analysis (haulage distance of 350 km, average velocity of 100 m/sec (360 km/h), estimated payback period of 10 years) the following versions of unibuses are recommended to be used: SRM I (2 passengers) when passenger traffic flow is up to 17 thous. pass/day, SRM II (6 passengers) when passenger traffic flow varies from 17 thous. pass/day to 26 thous. pass/day, SRM III (14 passengers), SRM IV (22 passengers), SRM V (30 passengers) when passenger traffic flow varies from 26 thous. pass/day to 100 thous. pass/day.
  • The results of Analysis prove that in respect of fare cost, ecological sustainability, capital expenses and payback period it is more preferable to use SRM III unibuses (14 passengers) with algorithm of "e-coupling" trains moving along electrified track structure (haulage distance of 350km, average velocity of 100 m/sec (360 km/h), passenger traffic flow from 26 thous. pass/day to 100 thous. pass/day).

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